(Indian Geography) The Northern Mountains - Greater & Lower Himalayas Mountains

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The Northern Mountains

Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), is a range that spans ten states of India namely. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura as well as the hill regions of two states Assam and West Bengal. Some of the highest mountains on earth are found in the region. Many rivers considered holy like the Ganga and Yamuna flow from the Himalaya mighty but older streams like the Indus, Sutlej, Kali, Kosi and Brahmaputra have cut through steep gorges to escape into the great plains and have established their antecedence.

Himalayas Mountains: The word 'Himalaya' means house of snow in Sanskrit. The Himalayas are so high that they kept the Indian and Chinese people separate from each other most of the time. In fact, India is a peninsula that is cut off from the rest of Asia by the mountains.

Greater Himalayas

Also known as great Himalaya Range, Higher Himalayas, Himadri, highest and northernmost section of the Himalayan mountain range. It extends southeastward across northern Pakistan, northern India, and Nepal before trending eastward across Sikkim state (India) and Bhutan and finally turning northeastward across northern Arunachal Pradesh state (India); throughout nearly all of its length it adjoins to the north India to the southern Tibet (autonomous region of China). The range's total length is some 1400 miles (2,300 km) and it has average elevation of more than 20,000 feet (6,100 metres). The great Himalayas contain many of the world's tallest peaks, including (from west to east) Nanga Parbat, Annapurna, mount Everest and Kanchenjunga.

Mount Everest: Mount Everest, also known as Sagarmatha in Nepal and Chomolungma in Tibet, is the earth's highest mountain. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. Its peak is 8,850 metre (29,029 ft) above sea level and is the 5th furthest point from the centre of the earth. The international border between China and Nepal runs across the precise summit point, its massif includes neighbouring peaks 'Lhotse' (8516 metres) Nuptse (7,855 metres), changtse (7,580 metres).

Kanchenjunga: Kanchenjunga is the third highest mountain in the world. It rises with an elevation of 8,586 metres in a section of the Himalayas called Kanchenjunga Himal that is limited is the west by the Tamur river and in the east by the Teesta river. The Kanchenjunga Himal is located in eastern Nepal and Sikkim state (India). It is the highest peak in India, and the eastern most of the peaks higher than 8,000 metres. It is called 'five treasure of snow' after its five high peaks, and has always been worshipped by the people of Darjeeling and Sikkim.

Annapurna: It is a section of the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) Annapurna- I, thirteen additional peaks over 7,000 metres (22,970 ft) and 16 more occur 6,000 metre (19,690 ft). this section is a 55 km long massif bounded by the Kali gandaki gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east and Pokhara Valley on the south.

Nanga Parbat: Nanga Parbat is the ninth highest mountain in the world. It is the western anchor of the Himalayas around which the Indus river skirts before it debouches into the plains of Pakistan. It is located in the Gilgit- baltistan region of Pakistan and is locally known as 'Deo Mir' ('Mir' means 'mountain'). Highest point 8,126 m (26,660 ft) and listed under the eight-thousanders. 

NOTE: Eight-thousanders are the 14 independent mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) high above sea level. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia. Their summits are in the death zone. Know more..

Himachal Range or Lower Himalayas

Also called lesser Himalayas is a major east-west mountain range with elevations 1500 to 2700 metre (5,000 to 9,000 ft) along the crest, paralleling the much higher great Himalaya range from the Indus River in Pakistan across northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim state (India). Lower Himalayas range also parallel to the lower Shivalik or Churia range (outer Himalaya) to the south.

Area in this zone are tehsil Pachad (upper areas), District Sirmour, Karsog and achiote tehsils of Mandi district, the upper areas of district kangra and Palampur tehsil of kangra district, upper hills of district shimla (capital of Himachal Pradesh) and upper parts of tehsil Churah of Chamba district. There is a very high peak of choordhar (3,647 metres or 10,941 ft) to the south of Shimla.

Pir Panjal Range: The Pir Panjal Range, 288 km long and with width changes between 40 and 50 km, is a group of mountains which starts in Ramban and extends westward in the south of J&K (vale of Kashmir) to the extremity of Muzaffarabad district Six historical passes Pir Panjal Pass, Banihal Pass, Hajipur Pass, Ratan Pir Pass, Bairam Gala Pass and Gulabgarh Pass are in this mountain. The highest mountain range is Tattakoti. Its elevation is 15,524 ft (4,732 metre). The height of this range near Gulmarg is 15,500 ft (3,800 metre) high.

Dhauladhar Range: The Dhauladhar range is a southern branch of the main outer Himalayan chain of mountains. The highest peak in the range is the "Hanuman Ji Ka Tibba", or 'white mountain', about 5,639 metre or 18,500 ft high. There are several peaks which are close to 5,180 metre. Its rises from the Indian plains to the north of Kangra and Mandi. Dharamshala the headquarters of Kangra district, lies on its southern spur in above the Kangra Valley, which divides it from Chamba.

Nagtibba Range: Nagtibba (3,022 metres) is the highest peak of lower Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state (Garhwal Division), it is believed to be the abode of 'Nag Devta' or Snake God, from which it borrows the first part of its name; 'Tibba' is a local word for hill or peak. Local villagers come here to after their prayers to Nag Devta for the protection of their cattle.

Mahabharat Range: Maha Bharat Range is a mountain Range in Nepal with an elevation of 5,017 metres above sea level. ib5) Mussoorie Range Mussoorie range has an average elevation of about 2005.5 metres (6580 ft). The highest point is Lal Tibba, at a height of about 7500 ft (although the name Lal Tibba is now also used to describe a lovely look-out point, a short distance from the actual peak.)

Shivalik Range: Shivalik range is a mountain range of outer Himalayas and also called sub-Himalayas or external Himalayas and also known as manak Parbat in ancient times. Shivalik literally means tresses of Shiva. This range is about 2,400 km (1500 mile) long enclosing an area that starts almost from the Indus and ends close to the Brahmaputra, with a gap of about 90 km (56 mi) between the Teesta and Raidak rivers in Assam. Other names of Shivalik includes Churia hills, chure hills and margalla hills. The Shivalik hills are the southernmost and geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the Himalayas.

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