Bihar Police Constable Economics (अर्थशास्त्र) Syllabus

केन्द्रीय चयन पर्षद, पटना, बिहार

Central Selection Board of Constable: Bihar Police Syllabus 2018-19

Bihar Police Economics (अर्थशास्त्र) Subject Syllabus

1. A. Introduction

  • What is Economics ?
  • Basic understanding of economics and economic phenomenon especially in context of the concept of scarcity and allocation of resources.
  • Definitions of Economics: Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Lionel Robbins, Samuelson.
  • Meaning, Scope and importance of statistics in Economics.

B. Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data

  • Collection of Data- Sources of Data- Primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; three important sources of secondary data. Census of India, National Sample Survey Organisation and Directorate of Statistics & Evaluation, Bihar, Patna.
  • Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.
  • Presentation of Data : Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic

Presentation of Data :
(i) Geometric forms (bar diagams and pie diagrams),
(ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and
(iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

C. Statistical Tools and Interpretation.

  • Measures of Central Tendency- mean (simple and weighted), median and mode.
  • Measures of Disperson- Absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation), relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation). Lorenz Curve: meaning and its application. ·
  • Introduction of Index Numbers- meaning; what does an Index number show, measure or indicate; How you can construct index number; types- wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

2. Economic Development of Bihar & India

A. Development Policies and Experience (1947-90)

  • A brief introduction of the state of economy of Bihar and Indian on the eve of independence.
  • Common goals of Five Year Plans.
  • Main features, problems and policies of:
    (i) Agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy etc.)
    (ii) Industry (agro-based, industrial licensing, etc.) and
    (iii) Foreign trade.

B. Economic Reforms since- 1991

  • Need & main features: Liberlisation, globalization and Privatisation.
  • An appraisal of SEZ & LPG Policies.
  • Impact of Bihar.

C. Current Challenges Facing Economy of Bihar and India

  • Poverty: Absolute and relative; Meaning of poverty line; vicious circle of poverty; causes of poverty; Government and non-government measures on poverty alleviations; Main programmes for poverty alleviation : A critical assessment.
  • Rural development: Key issues- credit and marketing- role of cooperatives and self help groups; agricultural diversification; alternative farming- organic farming.
  • Population growth over the years; Census of 2001; age, sex composition; density of population and occupational distribution; the current National Policy on Population.
  • Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India.· Employment: Growth informalisation and other issues; Problems and policies.
  • Infrastructure: Meaning & tupes; Case studies: Energy and Health-Problems and Policies- A Critical assessment;
  • The role of Public Distribution System in providing food security in Bihar; A critical examination of the PDS.
  • Capital formation in Bihar; Capital requirements for economic growth.
  • Environment: Sustainable economic development; limited availability of resources; environmental degradation.

D. Development Experience of Bihar: A comparison with other states

  • Bihar and Punjab
  • Bihar and Maharashtra
  • Issues: Growth, sectoral development and other developmental indicators.

E. Development Experience of India: A comparison with neighbours

  • India and Pakistan
  • India and China
  • Issues: Growth, sectoral development and other developmental indicators.

3. Introductory microeconomics

A. Introduction

  • What is microeconomics ?
  • Central problems of an economy, production possibility curve and opportunity cost.

B. Consumer Behaviour and Demand

  • Consumer’s Equilibrium- Meaning and attainment of equilibrium through Utility Apporoach: One and two commodity cases;
  • Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, movement along and shifts in demand curve.
  • Price elasticity of demand, measurement of price elasticity of demandpercentage, total expenditure and geometric method.

C. Producer Behaviour & Supply

  • Production function : Returns to Factor and Returns to Scale.
  • Supply : Market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve movement along and shifts in supply curve,
  • Price elasticity of supply, measurement of price elasticity of supply-Percentage and geometric method.
  • Cost and Revenue: Short run costs- Total cost, Total variable cost, Total Fixed cost; Average Fixed cost, Average variable cost and Marginal costmeaning and their relationship. Revenue-total, average and marginal revenue; Opportunity cost : definition, application.
  • Producers’ equilibrium- Meaning and its conditions in terms of total cost and total revenue.

D. Forms of Market and Price Determination

  • Forms of Market- Perfect competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic competition- their meaning and features.
  • Price determination under perfect competition- Equilibrium price, effects of shifts in demand and supply.

E. Simple applications of Tools of demand and supply Curves

  • The teachers can be given the flexibility to choose the issues : rationing, floor and ceilings and Food availability decline (FAD) Theory. The teachers are encouraged to choose alternative examples that are simple and easy to understand.
  • Note to text book writers : More examples from day-to-day context could be given. More numerical examples (solved) will have to be given. Use of pictures, charts and simple tables is essential.

4. Introductory Macro-economics

A. National Income and related aggregates

  • Macroeconomics : Meaning
  • Circular flow of income, concepts of GDP, GNP, NDP, NNP (at market price and factor cost), National Disposable Income (gross and net); Irivate Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income.
  • Measurement of National Income : Value added method, Income method and Expenditure method.

B. Determination of Income and Employment

  • Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply and their components.
  • Prospensity to consume and prospensity to save (average and marginal)
  • Meaning of Involuntary unemployment and full employment.
  • Determination of income and employment : Two sector model.
  • Concept of investment multiplier and its working.
  • Problems of excess and deficient demand : Measures to correct excess and deficient demand- availability of credit, change in Government spending.

C. Money and Banking

  • Money – meaning, evolution and functions.
  • Inflation: cost-push; demand-pull; causes, effects of inflation on different groups of society; measures to control inflation.
  • Central Bank – meaning and functions.
  • Commercial banks – meaning and functions.
  • Recent significant reforms and issues in Indian Banking System : Privatisation and modernization.

D. Government Budget and the Economy.

  • Government budget- meaning and its components.
  • Objectives of government budget.
  • Classification of receipt- revenue and capital;
  • Taxes – types
  • Classification of expenditure- revenue and capital, plan and non plan & developmental and non-developmental.
  • Balanced budget, surplus budget and deficit budget: meaning and implication.
  • Revenue deficit, fiscal deficit and primary deficit: meaning and implications; measures to contain different deficits.
  • Latest budget of Bihar and India.

E. International Trade:

  • Why International Trade takes place
  • Balance of payments accounts - meaning and components
  • Foreign exchange rate- meaning (Fixed and Flexible), merits and demerits, Determination through demand and supply.
  • A brief analysis about recent exchange rate issues.
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