Important Topic: Time Crystal or Space-Time Crystal

Important Topics for Competitive Exams

Important Topic

A time crystal or space-time crystal is a structure that repeats in time, as well as in space. Normal three-dimensional crystals have a repeating pattern in space (Crystals, such as diamond and quartz, are made of atoms arranged in a repeating pattern in space) but remain unchanged as time passes. Time crystals repeat themselves in time as well, leading the crystal to change from moment to moment.

It was first predicted in 2012 by Nobel Prize winner Frank Wilczek from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A time crystal never reaches thermal equilibrium, as it is a type of non-equilibrium matter—a form of matter proposed in 2012, and first observed in 2017. This state of matter cannot be isolated from its environment–it is an open system in non-equilibrium.

In 2014 Krzysztof Sacha at Jagiellonian University in Krakow predicted the behaviour of discrete time crystals in a periodically-driven many-body system. In 2016, Norman Yao (and colleagues at the University of California at Berkeley) proposed a different way to create time crystals in spin systems. From there, Christopher Monroe and Mikhail Lukin independently confirmed this in their labs. Both experiments were published in Nature in 2017. - Source: Wikipedia

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