Important Topic: Sadler, Strachey & Fraser Commission

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Lord Curzon had first tried to introduce some administrative reform of the university education by instituting a University Education Commission in 1902. At the time of the Government of India Resolution in 1913 there were only five universities in India and the number of colleges was beyond the control of the various universities within their territorial limits. As a result, different administrative problems piled up in that period. Therefore, it became a necessity to reform the Indian Universities also. All these circumstances led to the formation of the Second University Commission. i.e., Calcutta University Commission in 1917 and report on the problems of university education.

The Commission is also known as the Sadler Commission after the name of its chairman Dr. Michael E. Sadler. Due to the suggestions of this Commission a number of new universities were opened in the country. Of these, the universities at Patna, Osmania, Aligarh, Dacca,  Lucknow, Delhi, Agra, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Annamalai may be mentioned. The number increased upto 30 within 1930. The recurring famines of 19th century were the inevitable consequences of the British policies and exposed the real character of the British administration for Indian peasantry. Amongst all such tragedies, a terrible bout of famine struck parts of South India in 1877.

In May 1878, Lord Lytton appointed a Famine Commission with Sir Richard Strachey (1817-1908) as President and Sir Charles A. Elliott (1835-1911) as Secretary. The Commission was charged to investigate the impact of the famine on vital statistics, to suggest the character of future relief programmes, to outline criteria for complimentary relief, to clarify the Government's role in the supply and distribution of food and to project the expected benefit of railway and irrigation projects.

The Commission recommended:
1. A famine code should be formulated.
2. Irrigation facilities should be developed.
3. Collection of land revenue should be suspended immediately during famines and land revenue should be remitted.
4. Data should be collected about the conditions of Indian peasantry and agriculture.
5. A famine fund should be set up.

In 1902-03, a Police Commission was established for the Police reforms under Sir Andrew Frazer by Lord Curzon. It recommended the appointment of Indians at officer level in the police. Indians could rise only to the ranks of Inspector of Police, the senior N.C.O. position. However, they were not part of Indian Imperial Police.

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